By Stuart Elden

Territory is likely one of the crucial political techniques of the trendy international and, certainly, capabilities because the fundamental method the realm is split and regulated politically. but territory has now not got the severe realization afforded to different the most important thoughts akin to sovereignty, rights, and justice. whereas territory keeps to topic politically, and territorial disputes and preparations are studied intimately, the concept that of territory itself is frequently missed this day. the place did the belief of particular possession of a part of the earth’s floor come from, and what forms of complexities are hidden in the back of that doubtless user-friendly definition?
           
The beginning of Territory offers a close account of the emergence of territory inside of Western political notion. historic, medieval, Renaissance, and early glossy idea, Stuart Elden examines the evolution of the idea that of territory from historical Greece to the 17th century to figure out how we arrived at our modern knowing. Elden addresses quite a number ancient, political, and literary texts and practices, in addition to a couple of key players—historians, poets, philosophers, theologians, and secular political theorists—and in doing so sheds new mild at the manner the area got here to be ordered and the way the earth’s floor is split, managed, and administered.

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236 Can this be rendered as “the imperial roads and rivers”? Or does it suggest whatever towards “land and river boundaries”? This increases topics for next sections: the that means of imperium and limes. A dialogue of Roman cartography and technological know-how is located in bankruptcy four. AUGUSTUS AND IMPERIUM The yr after Caesar’s assassination, Antonius, Octavian, and Lepidus shaped a “tresviri rei publicae constituendae,” a triumvirate for constituting the res publica in forty four BCE. 237 The plan was once that the 3 males could have five-year consular authority, with varied elements of the empire lower than their keep an eye on. 238 Antonius took lands to the east, together with Egypt; the west was once divided among Lepidus and Octavian. Octavian held Italy, yet this was once obvious by way of Antonius as “something of a poisoned chalice as a result disruption that used to be anticipated to be triggered there. ”239 Cassius Dio de- 76 bankruptcy scribes the parts every one managed, following the removing of Lepidus, utilizing the notice khora in its political-geographical feel. 240 the second one triumvirate got here to an finish with Octavian combating and Marcus Antonius suffering for whole regulate, and fi nally the decisive sea conflict of Actium in 31 BCE. With Octavian’s victory over Antonius and Cleopatra, a go back to the republic appeared not likely. but he used to be sufficiently canny to gain that he needed to build his new regime otherwise. He resigned his workplaces, returning strength to the Senate and other people. 241 frightened of his leaving behind the res publica, the Senate implored him to proceed its safety. He was once tasked with army keep an eye on of key components for ten years, and given the honorary identify of Augustus. 242 As Tacitus describes it, Octavian “organised the res publica neither as a state or a dictatorship, yet because the fi rst citizen [non regno tamen neque dictatura, sed principis nomine constitutam rem publicam]. ”243 by way of the identify “princeps,” he looked as if it would in basic terms be preeminent between equals; but this was once dissembling. As Meier notes, “When Cicero declared that the republic was once misplaced it was once nonetheless in lifestyles. whilst Augustus acknowledged it used to be restored it had come to an finish. ”244 After Caesar’s loss of life, he took the identify Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, to mark his adoption, frequently shedding the final to conceal his extra lowly start. 245 whereas there are questions about the legitimacy of his adoption, due to the fact Caesar didn't make this transparent in the course of his life,246 it carried him some distance. the following deification of Caesar intended he may perhaps kind himself no longer easily the son of Caesar, however the son of God, divi fi lius, priceless of veneration as holy himself. 247 He was once given the name Imperator in 39 BCE. This was once now not in simple terms a replication of how that conventional generals got this designation for his or her army victories, yet as an honorary fi rst identify. Cassius Dio says that he was once no longer autokratos, that is Dio’s notice for imperium, yet owning or being marked through strength, kratos diasemainousan. 248 He hence grew to become Imperator Caesar divi fi lius, including Augustus in 27 BCE.

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