By Bhaskar Ramachandran, Christopher O. Justice, Michael J. Abrams

Land distant Sensing and worldwide Environmental swap: The technology of ASTER and MODIS is an edited compendium of contributions facing ASTER and MODIS satellite tv for pc sensors aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua systems introduced as a part of the Earth looking at procedure fleet in 1999 and 2002 respectively. This quantity is split into six sections. the 1st 3 sections offer insights into the historical past, philosophy, and evolution of the EOS, ASTER and MODIS software designs and calibration mechanisms, and the information structures parts used to regulate and supply the technology information and derived items. The latter 3 sections solely take care of ASTER and MODIS facts items and their functions, and the way forward for those periods of remotely sensed observations.

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580–9. 880 10. 780–11. 280 eleven. 770–12. 270 thirteen. 185–13. 485 thirteen. 485–13. 785 thirteen. 785–14. 085 14. 085–14. 385 890–920 931–941 915–965 Bandwidtha Bandwidtha zero. forty five 2. 38 zero. seventy nine zero. 17 zero. fifty nine zero. fifty nine 6 1. sixteen 2. 18 nine. fifty eight three. sixty nine nine. fifty five eight. ninety four four. fifty two three. seventy six three. eleven 2. 08 10 three. 6 15 Spectral radianceb Spectral radianceb zero. 05 zero. 2 zero. 07 zero. 07 zero. 25 zero. 25 a hundred and fifty (SNR)c zero. 25 zero. 25 zero. 05 zero. 25 zero. 05 zero. 05 zero. 25 zero. 25 zero. 25 zero. 35 Required NEDT(K)d 167 fifty seven 250 Required SNRc 7  Terra and Aqua MODIS layout, Radiometry, and Geometry one hundred thirty five 136 X. Xiong et al. foundation for the MODIS layout. extra info at the evolution of the NASA EOS and improvement of the MODIS tools are supplied in Chap. 1. This bankruptcy specializes in the MODIS sensor layout, radiometry, and geometry as they observe to land distant sensing. With near-daily insurance of the Earth’s floor, MODIS offers complete measurements that permit scientists and coverage makers to higher comprehend and successfully deal with the common assets on either neighborhood and worldwide scales. Terra, the 1st huge multisensor EOS satellite tv for pc, is operated in a 10:30 am (local equatorial crossing time, descending southwards) polar orbit. Aqua, the second one multisensor EOS satellite tv for pc is operated in a 1:30 pm (local equatorial crossing time, ascending northwards) polar orbit. With complementing morning and afternoon observations, the Terra and Aqua MODIS, including different sensors housed on either satellites, have vastly stronger our knowing of the dynamics of the worldwide environmental method. Following a quick description of the MODIS (Terra and Aqua) sensor layout, this bankruptcy discusses the radiometric calibration methodologies used for the Level-1B (L1B) scene radiance and reflectance retrievals, and on-orbit calibration and characterization actions related to the onboard calibrators (OBCs). additionally offered is the MODIS pixel geometry, calibration method, and pointing wisdom (Sect. 7. 4). eventually, an instance of vicarious calibration and sensor on-orbit functionality validation with a objective at the Earth’s floor is additionally offered (Sect. 7. 5). Addi­ tional info on sensor layout, radiometric and geometric calibration, and validation utilizing floor pursuits are available Barnes et al. (2003), Guenther et al. (1998), Xiong et  al. (2002a, b, 2003a, b, 2005a), Nishihama et  al. (1997), Wolfe et al. (1998), Hook et al. (2006), Thome et al. (2003), Wan et al. (2004), Minnett et al. (2004), and Franz et al. (2005). 7. 2 MODIS Sensor layout 7. 2. 1 MODIS Optics MODIS is a whiskbroom scanning radiometer utilizing a double-sided paddle wheel experiment reflect that rotates at 20. three rpm. determine 7. 1 depicts the MODIS test hollow space with its key parts and subsystems together with the OBCs. The test reflect comprises a refined, nickel-plated beryllium substrate, covered with excessive purity silver, that's over-coated with a proprietary silicon monoxide/silicon dioxide blend. In every one experiment (1. 478 s), replicate part 1 or replicate facet 2 collects Earth view (EV) information over a ±55° field-of-view (FOV) situated on tool nadir, which produces a 10 km vast swath (at nadir) within the along-track course through 2,330 km lengthy within the crosstrack course.

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