By David Nicolle

Osprey's research of the Mongols' invasion of Russia. In 1221, Genghiz, nice Khan of the Mongols, ordered an armed reconnaissance day trip into Russia commanded by means of Sübodei Bahadur and Jebei Noyon 'The Arrow'. the results for the historical past of Europe have been incalculable. The decisive Mongol victory at Kalka River, unfolded giant areas of Russia and jap Europe to Mongol conquest. Genghiz ordered his triumphant military to come back eastwards, delaying the ultimate cataclysm by means of many years. Genghiz died in 1227, yet inside of 10 years his son Ögedei ordered a go back to Russia to accomplish the conquest. This name info the occasions of the dramatic Kalka River crusade.

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1215 Mongols trap northern chinese language capital. 1218 Mongols occupy Kara-Khitai Empire; Mstislav Mstislavich campaigns to regulate Galicia in south-western Russia with the aid of the Polovtsians less than Koten Khan. 1219 Genghiz Khan starts his invasion of Khwarazmian territory; Hungarians recapture Galicia from Mstislav Mstislavich. 1220 February, Mongols catch Bukhara in Transoxania. April, Mongols trap Samarqand in Transoxania. summer season, Mongol military lower than Jebei Noyon and Subodei Bahadur despatched to pursue Muhammad the Khwarazmshah throughout northern Iran; the Khwarazmshah dies on an island within the Caspian Sea. December, Mongols damage Urgench in Khwarazm. 1221 overdue wintry weather, Mongol military in western Iran, lower than Jebei and Subodei, destroys Qazvin. February, Mongol military in western Iran devastates the dominion of Georgia, then returns to seize Maraghah in north-western Iran, by means of Hamadan in western Iran; Mongol military in japanese Iran destroys Marw in Khurasan. April, Mongol military in jap Iran destroys Nishapur in Khurasan. Spring, Mongols wreck Balkh in northern Afghanistan. 15 October, Mongol military in western Iran invades Georgia for the second one time. 25 November, Mongols defeat Khwarazmshah's son Jalal al-Din at a conflict close to the Indus river. Dominican Order of Friars sends Catholic Christian missionaries to the Polovtsians. Mstislav Mstislavich campaigns to manage Galicia in south-western Russia. Seljuk Turkish Sultan of Anatolia imposes his suzereinty over the nominally Genoese service provider outpost of Sudak within the Crimea and instals a Turkish garrison; defenders of Sudak defeat a mixed Russian-Polovtsian try to take the town. 1222 Spring, Mongols damage Ghazna in Afghanistan. 14 June, Mongols damage Herat in Afghanistan. Mongol military in western Iran crosses the Caucasus Mountains and later within the 12 months defeats the Alans and different north Caucasus peoples, via the Polovtsians. Polovtsians in Hungary granted a constitution of privileges within the Gyor-Sopron zone. Western Mongol military below Jebei and Subodei winters within the steppes north of the Crimean peninsula. 1223 Western Mongol military captures Genoese buying and selling outpost of Sudak within the Crimea early within the yr. Koten Khan of the Polovtsians convinces Prince Mstislav Mstislavich of Galicia to shape an alliance to force the Mongols from the western steppes. Mstislav Mstislavich summons a council of best Russian princes in Kiev. Russian military along with contingents from a number of principalities assembles at the Dnieper River south of Kiev, executes Mongol ambassadors. complete Russian military assembles with its Polovtsian allies at Khortytsya island (next to fashionable Zaporizhzhya). 22 may possibly, Russian and Polovtsian military crosses the Dnieper, defeats the 1st Mongol outpost then advances opposed to the most Mongol military, marching for 9 days (Arabic resource through Ibn al-Athir, most likely in response to Mongol assets, says 12 days). 31 may perhaps, (some assets say June 16), Russian-Polovtsian military overwhelmed on the conflict of the Kalka River. summer season, Western Mongol armies pursues damaged remnants of Russian and Polovtsian military to the Dnieper River, yet are then ordered to rejoin the most Mongol military north of Transoxania; western Mongol military marches up the Volga and makes an attempt to impose Mongol suzereinty at the Volga Bulgars yet undergo a opposite by the hands of the Bulgars; major Mongol military in Transoxania spends summer season resting its horses north of the Hindu Kush mountains.

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