By Judith A. Langer, Arthur N. Applebee

During this groundbreaking learn, Langer and Applebee analyzed writing assignments and their educating around the curriculum in U.S. secondary colleges to work out how they help studying. "To enhance the educating of writing, relatively within the context of educational tasks," they argue, "is additionally to enhance the standard of considering required of college children." yet they additional exhibit right here how modifications within the varieties of writing scholars do lead scholars to do other forms of considering and learning.

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001 . 001 n. s. n. s. . 021 five. 33 zero. 05 zero. 20 zero. ninety seven . 027 n. s. n. s. n. s. 36 1 1 1 1 2 37 1 1 1 1 2 37 1 2 1 2 37 Learning from Writing: examine 3 127 an important influence (p < . 001), back within the anticipated course. At day , scholars who accomplished comprehension questions recalled 29 percentage of the content material devices that they incorporated of their learn activity; scholars who summarized the passage recalled 39 percentage; and scholars who accomplished an analytic-writing activity recalled totally 50 percentage. remember of fabric now not manipulated as a part of the examine job confirmed an analogous development, even though even within the analytic-writing situation it averaged simply 6 percentage of the cloth. those styles of keep in mind have been remarkably reliable even on the fiveday retention try out. The most powerful results persisted to be linked to even if specific content material devices have been incorporated within the learn activity: bear in mind of manipulated content material remained at 31 percentage, in comparison with five percentage for content material that had now not been manipulated. equally, the kinds of manipulation fascinated by analytic writing resulted in the simplest retention (43 percent), precis writing subsequent (32 percent), and comprehension questions least (24 percent). remember of content material devices now not integrated in responses to the learn projects confirmed an identical ordering, even though the volume recalled remained very small. taking pictures the Gist it really is attainable to recollect a goodly variety of remoted evidence from a passage with no inevitably having the ability to relate these proof to each other in a scientific means. to evaluate this element of studying, we additionally rated every one remember on a four-point scale reflecting the level to which the gist or total feel of the unique textual content used to be captured. In desk 19, suggest rankings are pronounced for bear in mind of gist, in addition to the share of remembers rated as "good" or "very sturdy" at shooting the gist (3 or four at the scale). As with the opposite measures mentioned thus far, scores for gist confirmed an important linear impact for job (p < . 04), with scholars within the analytic-writing staff doing most sensible and people within the read-and-study and comprehension-questioq stipulations doing least good. scholars from the analytic-writing obtained significantly extra "good" rankings for gist (73 percentage) than did those that had accomplished comprehension questions (29 percentage) or precis writing (31 percent). by means of day six the consequences have been weaker, although the 2 prolonged writing projects endured to obtain larger scores than both of the opposite stipulations. subject wisdom The 3rd degree of the results of the 3 examine projects used to be in accordance with Langer's (1984b, 1984c) degree of topic-specific wisdom. This How Writing Shapes pondering 128 desk 19 rankings for holding Gist of Passage on Days and 6 (Pooled SD) Adjusted suggest scores (Pooled SD) Day Day six percentage rated "good" Day Day six Comprehension learn and Ques- precis Analytic tions Writing Writing learn (tz=14) ( n = 1 7 ) ( n = 1 6 ) ( n = l l ) ( four (. 7) 2. 1 2. 1 2. 1 2. 1 2. three 2. three 23. 1 23. 1 29. four 23.

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