By Frances Densmore

A popular ethnologist with the Smithsonian establishment deals a desirable wealth of fabric on approximately two hundred vegetation that have been utilized by the Chippewas of Minnesota and Wisconsin. the quantity presents an emphasis on wild crops and their lesser-known makes use of. "A attention-grabbing, well-illustrated study." — Grand Rapids Gazette. 33 plates.

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384—392. (No plant lists. ) SWANTON, JOHN R. non secular ideals and clinical practices of the Creek Indians. Forty-second Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn. , 1927, pp. 639-670. 368 crops utilized in DYES means of DYEING the overall means of dyeing one of the Chippewa consisted within the use of a vegetable substance to safe a colour and of a mineral substance to “set” it. Porcupine quills have been the articles most simply dyed, and so they preserve their colour longest. Rushes are the toughest fabric to dye and sometimes require numerous “dippings ” ahead of the specified color should be procured. Yarn and ravelings of blankets have been one of the fabrics most often coloured by means of the Chippewa ladies. wood implements have been coloured by means of rubbing them with the clean root of the blood-root, generating an orange coloration. either vegetation and tree items have been utilized in dyes. The latter may be got at any season of the yr, and the bushes used have been universal bushes, so that they have been often got whilst wanted. An exception is the butternut tree, which doesn't develop in all components of the Chippewa state. the internal bark of this is often used for black dye, and packets of it are taken from one locality to a different and saved as rigorously as medicinal roots. every time a lady sees a plant that she might at your time want in making dye she gathers it, dries it, and shops it to be used. checklist OF vegetation utilized in DYES Botanical identify universal identify a part of plant used Alnusincana (L. ) Moench ---------------- Alder---------------- internal bark. Betula papyrifera Marsh ---------------- White birch---------------- Do. Coptis trifolia (L. ) Salisb---------------- Goldthread---------------- Root. Cornus stolonifera Michx ---------------- Red-osier dogwood---------------- internal bark. Corylus americana Walt---------------- Hazel ---------------- eco-friendly bur. Juglans cinerea L---------------- Butternut---------------- Bark and root. Acer---------------- Maple (any style) ---------------- Rotted wooden. Juniperus virginiana L---------------- Cedar ---------------- internal bark. Lithospermum carolinense (Walt) MacM. Puccoon ---------------- Dried root. Prunus americana Marsh ---------------- Chokecherry ---------------- internal bark. (auercus macrocarpa Muhl ---------------- Bur oak---------------- Do. Rhus glabra L---------------- Sumac ---------------- Pulp of stalk, additionally internal bark. Sanguinaria canadensis L---------------- Bloodroot---------------- internal bark. Tsuga canadensis (L. ) Carr---------------- Hemlock ---------------- Do. MINERAL ingredients utilized in DYES The reddish substance that rose to the skin of sure springs was once accrued, dried, and baked within the fireplace. It then “became tough like stone. ” This was once powdered and the effective crimson powder stored in buckskin. whilst combined with grease it made a paint that was once reddish yet now not vermilion and used to be used on arrows and for portray faces and our bodies. The “ scum ” contained iron oxide, and the powder is often called ochre within the following formulae. A black earth which “bubbled up in sure springs” was once utilized in black dyes. the author visited this sort of spring at the Manitou Rapids Reserve in Ontario and was once advised that the Chippewa girls buried their rushes within the black earth for a number of days and hence secured a passable black colour.

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