By Donald MacDonald

9 million humans stopover at the Golden Gate Bridge every year, but what number comprehend why it really is painted that beautiful color of"international orange"? Or that historic Mayan and paintings Deco structures prompted the layout? present bridge architectDonald MacDonald solutions those questions and others in a pleasant, informative examine the bridge's engineering and 70-year historical past. This available account is observed through 70 of MacDonald's personal fascinating colour illustrations, making it effortless to appreciate how the bridge used to be designed and developed. a desirable research for these attracted to structure, layout, or somebody with a smooth spot for San Francisco, Golden Gate Bridge is a becoming tribute to this undying icon.

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Five ninety nine now not the Golden Gate Bridge. Why no longer? One cause bankruptcy 60 miles south of San Francisco, one in every of its spans col- CHAPTER 6 T H E T W E N T Y- F I R S TCENTURY BRIDGE “Because of its first-class layout, its background of vital structural advancements, and ongoing upkeep application, the Bridge has a lifestyles span predicted at two hundred years. ” —Seismic Retrofit document, 1994 SEISMIC enhancements Retrofits on the Golden Gate Bridge started greater than fifty years in the past and feature incorporated 3 significant alterations. the 1st begun after the howling gales of one December 1951, which prompted minor yet seen harm. Clifford Paine, one of many bridge’s unique engineers and head of a examine at the 1940 Tacoma Narrows catastrophe, advised the addition of stiffening girders criss-crossed among the chords beneath the whole roadway. The plan used to be accredited. within the early Seventies, the entire suspender ropes have been changed after corrosion used to be came upon close to the gusset plates on the junction of a few ropes and floor-system chords. This took approximately 4 years to accomplish. paintings at the roadway used to be subsequent. by way of the bridge’s 40th anniversary in 1977, greater than 500 million automobiles had crossed it, and cracks have been starting to look within the street. Fog and salt air sifted into cracks within the concrete and deposited salt chloride into its grain, attaining three kilos in keeping with cubic backyard. Residue from GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE Opposite: determine sixty four towers, the citadel aspect arch may well uplift and flow, and weight and top, and the chloride used to be consuming into the south pylons should be largely broken. exchange the line. In August 1985, after 401 days and A thirteen. 3-million-dollar retrofit, meant to bolster the bridge adequate to outlive an earthquake as much as magazine- fifty two. five million funds, the task used to be done—and the reduce nitude eight. three, started, together with structural advancements lanes widened a foot to deal with the super and efforts to keep up the bridge's aesthetic integrity raise in either site visitors and car measurement. the recent, stron- and visual appeal (Figure 64). it's too dear to ger street was once additionally lighter through a few 11,000 plenty. but the easily substitute the bridge: in 1994-95, the price of street is consistently inspected and stored up: the girders doing so used to be envisioned at 1. four billion funds. The stay freed from rust and the root piers safe. towers and starting place in their helps have been energy- After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, even though, ened and metal parts on the south and north viaducts a vulnerability learn indicated that extra paintings wanted changed. Perforated metal plates changed horizontal to be performed. The bridge was once at risk of critical dam- laced trusses under the roadway and joined vertical age in an earthquake with a Richter significance of seven or helps. Diagonal field beams lower than the deck have been larger and an epicenter close to the bridge. more likely to further for additional energy. on the castle element Arch, undergo the best harm could be the southern load paths have been altered to circumvent the severe arch rib and northerly technique viaducts, that could simply participants, and a few laced individuals have been changed cave in.

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