By Neil Caplan, Philip Mattar, Charles E. Butterworth, Michael R. Fischbach, Eric Hooglund, Laurie King-Irani, John Ruedy

The second one version of this encyclopedia (four-volume set, 2004) covers the fashionable heritage of the center East and North Africa, with significant sections on Colonialism and Imperialism, the realm Wars, the Israeli-Palestinian clash, and the United countries involvement within the quarter.

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DAVID WALDNER AKÇURA, YUSUF [1876–1935] Turkish nationalist and author. The Ajman economic system has commonly trusted fishing and alternate. in recent times the overall monetary improvement development within the U. A. E. has prolonged to Ajman to boot. The emirate has attracted ninety six Born Yusuf Akçurin within the Russian urban of Simbirsk (Ulyanovsk), at the Volga river, Yusuf Akçura migrated to Istanbul, capital of the Ottoman Empire, E n c y c l o p e d i a o f the trendy heart EAST AND NORTH AFRICA AKHBARI together with his relatives at an early age. He studied at an army college there after which on the Institut des Sciences Politiques in Paris, the place he met a number of younger Turks. In 1904, Akçura wrote the 1st manifesto of Turkish nationalism, “Uç Tarz-i Siyaset” (Three methods of Government), during which he thought of Ottomanism and pan-Islam to be impractical routes for Turkish political improvement. Akçura quickly turned essentially the most influential nationalists— selling Pan-Turkism prior to international conflict I. He spent a few years in Russia spreading Turkish nationalist rules, returning to Istanbul after the younger Turk revolution of 1908. Akçura was once a cofounder of the Türk Yurdu Cemiyati (Turkish native land Society) in 1911, with Ziya Gökalp, writer of its well-known periodical Türk Yurdu. the gang campaigned to simplify the Turkish language, to undertake the customs of Western civilization, and to advertise the pursuits of Turks in and out the Ottoman Empire. He joined the Kemalist move in 1921, yet maintained that it used to be the embodiment of pan-Turkism, and persisted to put in writing on Turkism for Russian Turks. See additionally Gökalp, Ziya; Newspapers and Print Media; Pan-Turkism; younger Turks. etry, Akhavan has written a booklet for kids, Derakht-e Pir va Jangal (The previous tree and the jungle), and articles on literary feedback introduced jointly as Majmu a-ye Maqalat (Collection of articles). Bibliography Karimi-Hakkak, Ahmad, ed. and trans. An Anthology of contemporary Persian Poetry. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1978. PARDIS MINUCHEHR AKHBAR, AL- (EGYPT) See Newspapers and Print Media: Arab international locations AKHBAR, AL- (JORDAN) See Newspapers and Print Media: Arab international locations AKHBAR AL-YAWM See Newspapers and Print Media: Arab nations Bibliography Arai, Masami. Turkish Nationalism within the younger Turk period. long island: E. J. Brill, 1992. AKHBARI the college of Shi ite jurisprudence. ELIZABETH THOMPSON AKHAVAN-SALESS, MEHDI [1928–1991] Iranian poet and literary critic who wrote below the pen identify Mim Omid, or Omid. Born in Mashhad, Mehdi Akhavan-Saless later lived in Khorramshahr and Tehran. in the course of his early life, he used to be politically lively and was once imprisoned in short after the coup d’état of 1953. Akhavan’s first released number of verse, Zemestan (Winter; 1956), expresses a nostalgia for romance through the use of nature imagery. His later verse from time to time displays a deep cynicism and sarcasm, and every now and then is full of life and witty. Akhavan is understood for his lengthy narrative poetry, which captures the reader’s recognition with its flowing dialogues. as well as po- Origins of the Akhbari may be traced to the 12th century.

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